順天堂グローバル教養論集第一巻20160325
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6Juntendo Journal of Global Studies, Vol. 1, (2016)the developmental learning processes of childhood, DMLL applies it to linguaculture learning. DST has been applied to foreign language education by scholars such as Murphy (Murphy & McClelland, 2011; Murphy & Sin, 2014), and is part of the emerging eld of educational neuroscience (Cozo-lino, 2013; Fischer, 2009; Sousa, 2010; Tokuhama-Espinosa, 2014). DST is a multi-tiered model, in which new skills are built upon existing skills in a sequence that re-peats itself at higher degrees of complexity (Fischer, 1980; Fischer & Bidell, 2006; Rose & Fischer, 2009). The present work focuses on four levels of learning: 1) single set, 2) mapping, 3) system, and 4) system of systems. The four levels of learning eluci-dated by DST provide a simple but powerful frame-work for understanding how linguistic and cultural knowledge builds on itself, how it reaches exponen-tially higher levels of complexity, and how the ex-perience of learners changes as their knowledge be-comes more sophisticated. According to DST, complex skills start through an accumulation of single sets—skills learned in relative isolation from each other. Next, there is a process of mapping, as those individual bits of knowledge are connected to each other in meaning-ful ways. At a certain point, these interconnections start to work together as a unied whole, or system. Systematic knowledge functions holistically, so that it is no longer experienced as a collection of sub-skills, but as a single higher-level skill. Such sys-tematic knowledge can be built upon as well: one system can be learned in relation to other systems, until a system-of-systems level of knowledge emerges (Figure 1). According to DST, this nal level is not the end point of development; it builds onto another tier of even more complex functioning. (Fischer, 1980; Fischer & Bidell, 2006). To get a sense for this, consider the collection of abilities required to learn to cook—or at a smaller scale, to prepare an omelet. Cooking an omelet is not simply a single skill—it is a collection of other skills that must be combined in a meaningful way. It requires, rst of all, a set of individual skills (single set), such as the ability to crack open an egg, turn on the re, or grate cheese. It also requires that those skills be connected together (mapping), as when one cracks open an egg, whisks it in a bowl, heats up the pan, and then pours the egg into the pan. Once these different skills are mastered, one starts to see mak-ing an omelet in holistic terms (system)—as one dish that you know how to make. This is the point at which creativity truly comes into play. Systematic knowledge allows for self-expression and individual variation—you may create unique omelets that dif-fer from the omelets of others, even as they conform to the expectations of what an omelet is. They have a predictable structure yet are individualized. For all its complexity, the ability to make an om-elet is only one sub-set of a much broader skill—the ability to be a good cook generally (system-of-sys-tems). Being a skilled cook requires more than the ability to follow many different recipes and make a variety of dishes. Good cooks are able to create new recipes and ‘‘play” with food in many ways. They are aware of how ingredients interact, have an un-derstanding of cooking processes, knowledge of dif-ferent types of cuisine, and so on. This system-of-systems’ understanding of cooking is exponentially more complex than the ability to create a single Figure 1. Levels of learning

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