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96Juntendo Journal of Global Studies, Vol. 1, (2016)tinue reading (Robb & Kano, 2013). A high number of words need to be read for ER to be clearly and demonstrably effective. On the basis of their re-search, Nishizawa, Yoshioka, & Fukada (2010) claim that a threshold level of about 300,000 words per student needs to be reached if students are to see any signicant increases in scores on standardized tests (TOEIC). In examining gains in reading u-ency, Beglar and Hunt (2014) state that reading more than 200,000 words is necessary to see signi-cant improvement. These numbers represent a con-siderable investment of time on the part of students. As an indication, 300,000 words can translate into about 70–100 pages per week (Mason, 2006), or at least 20 minutes per day of reading for ve days a week for two school terms, if we assume a reading speed averaging 100-120 words per minute (Beglar & Hunt, 2014). Tracking or monitoring students can require a large amount of time and expertise (Tanaka, 2015). In addition to the challenge of man-aging books and reading, there may be possible mindset challenges with students who have never experienced ER and have trouble understanding what is to be done and how/why it can help (Nishizawa, Yoshioka, & Fukada, 2010). Students may hold particular biases, or mindsets, that make them suspicious of the benets of reading books they see as signicantly easier than texts they have studied intensively. Considering the prociency lev-els of the young adults in most university ER pro-grams, appropriate books may be viewed as too easy or too childish (Hu & Nation, 2000). These attitudes may interfere with their willingness to begin exten-sive reading, or to start by reading books at a level that will maximize participation benets (Mercer, 2015). ER can signicantly boost English pro-ciency improvements if students read sufciently large quantities of appropriate-level texts. Results of studies of successful ER programs (Nishizawa, Yo-shioka, & Fukada, 2010; Robb & Kano, 2013) show that success is directly dependent upon whether the program can get students to read in large enough quantities, and do so with appropriate-level texts. Extensive reading programs generally have a sec-ondary goal of developing agency, self-regulation, and autonomous learning, which is seen as impor-tant for any learning endeavor (Zimmerman & Schunk, 2011), but particularly for language learn-ing (Mercer, 2011a). ER is attractive because it pro-vides an excellent platform for developing self-reg-ulation and autonomy. Self-regulated learning places the learner at the center of the learning experience and involves encouraging that learner to take more active control of his or her learning. This generally involves phases of forethought (including goal-set-ting and planning), performance (maintaining active engagement and adjusting effort), and reection (as-sessing learning and planning future adjustments) (Zimmerman & Schunk, 2011). ER programs can be ideal for fostering self-regulation and autonomy be-cause students themselves are choosing the books they read and monitoring their own progress. This helps foster intrinsic motivation and a positive iden-tity as an English reader (Lake, 2014). Challenges arise, however, with tracking and monitoring ER (Campbell & Weatherford, 2013). Students can be given record sheets on which they record what titles and how many words they have read. But not all books have clearly labeled word counts. Quizzes and book reports are the most com-mon forms of monitoring or checking student read-ing (Day & Bamford, 2002). However, making these a requirement can turn an intrinsic-motivation -developing extensive reading experience into a more intensive reading experience as readers search for answers or details to complete tests or reports, all the while engaged in these tasks very much for reasons that are extrinsically motivated (Lake & Holster, 2014). Too much focus on quizzes and re-ports can lead to anxiety, demotivation, and avoid-

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