順天堂グローバル教養論集第一巻20160325
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101Extensive Reading Onboardingtheory and best practices will be contrasted with the approach adopted by our program, on the basis of which recommendations are made.3.1. Creating the basic motivational con-ditions Creating supportive relationships between the in-structor and the learners and a cohesive learning group is most important at the beginning stages of a program (Taboada & McElvany, 2009). Learners approach new activities with a mixture of interest and hesitation. They are probably not initially aware of the potential benets of any activity, but they are aware of their own shortcomings and frustrations; hence, they are ready to listen to the suggestions of people they trust if they feel that they are being re-spected and understood as learners by community members who care about them (Porter, 2006). At this stage, the teacher must design a program for in-terest and to support autonomy. This means making the program and contents (of books) look as inter-esting as possible, as well as making sure that choice is built into the system. The English program at this university was successful in creating learning communities in the English classes, but less so in promoting choice and autonomy. Providing students with the option of not partici-pating in the ER program seems to have been a mis-interpretation of the SDT concept of autonomy through choice. As Gagne and Deci (2005) explain, there is a continuum of motivations from extrinsic to intrinsic, and an important detail is whether the required task is something that can help an individ-ual with his or her own personal goals. That is, some extrinsic pressure (grades or scores) can provide an initial reason to begin an activity whose purpose ul-timately matches the learners’ own goals—in this case improved English prociency—and gives stu-dents a short-term extrinsic reason that actually aligns with their long-term L2 self image. Pigott (2011) found that students in Japan tend to be more motivated by their ought-to self (short-term extrinsi-cally motivated) than their L2 future self, meaning that they look to program and teacher-imposed goals for behavior directions. Emberton (2013, p. 1) states ‘‘the most important thing you can do is start’’ be-cause once a person has begun and is engaged, mo-tivation will change. For an ER program, this means putting more em-phasis on the short-term benets of ER, and making those clearer and perhaps more real by showing case studies and linking results on standardized tests to reading volume. Both Mason (2006) and Nishizawa, Yoshioka, and Fukada (2010) provide good evidence. In addition, an ER program should hold students ac-countable by tying reading to grades, forcing them to start and experience ER and to think about its effec-tiveness. Within an ER program, there exists enough options for exercising autonomy—choosing books, choosing platforms, and choosing levels—and not reading should not be one of them. For the program in question, the structure for out-of-class assessment was already in place, it just needed to be applied to ER.3.2. Generating initial motivation According to Taboada and McElvany (2009), this stage should be focused on setting, explaining, and modeling mastery goals for reading in order to make those goals as clear as possible to learners. This is in keeping with the principles of formative assessment (Wiliam, 2011), namely that learners need to have as clear an idea as possible about learning intentions and the criteria for success. Clearly, one problem with the program was a complete lack of specic reading goals for participants. Students were not aware of exactly how ER would benet them, or how much they would need to read to get that bene-t. Although students had ER explained to them during the orientation, specic goals were not made salient enough to students. The community created

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