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102Juntendo Journal of Global Studies, Vol. 1, (2016)in English classes and the trust that students built up in their instructors were not sufciently leveraged for ER. Dweck (2006) has shown conclusively that fos-tering a growth mindset through orientation ses-sions, program design, and feedback on effort can lead to signicantly more engagement and success. This requires not only clear initial goals, but ongo-ing attention as students grapple with the challenges that emerge at different levels. Teachers can help students set individual reading goals based on their needs and prociency. Having clear and simple goals, which students can easily visualize them-selves achieving, can greatly affect the chances of their realization (Fogg and Hreha, 2010) and help reduce procrastination (Blouin-Hudon & Pychyl, 2015). This is particularly the case when students can see the value in achieving goals that they be-lieve to be challenging but attainable (Dweck, 2006). Setting short-term class goals for reading can also raise awareness for tracking word counts and help maintain group involvement in the target task, something that also greatly facilitates success (Fogg and Hreha, 2010). This all suggests that an ER pro-gram should provide more and clearer rationale for the reasons for doing ER and the mechanism by which it benets students. Moreover, it should re-peat and reinforce that message regularly until it is part of the fabric of the language and reading pro-gram. In tandem with this, an ER program should set clear, attainable reading targets for each student, progress toward which can be shared and celebrated when achieved.3.3. Maintaining and protecting motivation According to Taboada and McElvany (2009), teachers should build on any emerging sense of self-efcacy that learners have as they nish books or advance in level. Teachers should also make use of social collaboration and autonomy support in the classroom. Assuming that clear goals are in place, sharing, encouraging, and celebrating success are things that can be done in the classroom to support ER. This helps to foster a motivating sense of be-longing to a group with a purpose, a phenomenon known as ‘‘relatedness’’ in SDT. Social interaction with a purpose can also be used to control or im-prove individual behavior, a practical example of which is restorative practice, a group discussion/sharing activity with an emphasis on building and maintaining relationships, repairing behavioral problems, and working collaboratively on a way forward (Thorsborne & Blood, 2013). It is now be-ing used as an alternative to punishment for students who are either misbehaving or not complying with program requests, and could easily be put to work to encourage and support all students to stick with an ER program. Social collaboration can also foster lit-erary task relevance, as students share reading expe-rience and advice. This leads to opportunities for scaffolding, encouragement for moving up in level, and creates new options for self-directed reading. Fostering relevance of content or skills is also connected to sustaining or growing motivation (Taboada, Barber, & Buehl, 2013). Talking about books and sharing learning experiences and ad-vances allows learners to notice and display evi-dence of achievement and learning, something con-sidered crucial to formative assessment (Wiliam, 2011) and SDT (Ryan & Deci, 2000). This provides theoretical support for the intervention by the pro-gram teachers who tried to get their students to use the online readers by requiring reading for a class-room activity. Requiring the reading of a graded reader for a subsequent discussion in class resulted in the single biggest push to access readers. In line with this, The Extensive Reading Founda-tion’s Guide to Extensive Reading (Waring, 2011) suggests starting ER as a whole-class activity before focusing on autonomous ER. Such guided, incre-

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