順天堂グローバル教養論集第一巻20160325
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7The developmental model of linguaculture learningdish. There are so many factors involved in cooking at this level as to allow for an innity of creative possibilities. At this higher level of complexity, knowledge of cooking is experienced at a meta-level, i.e., concerns reach beyond the success or failure of any individual dish. The key element of these four levels is their in-creasing level of complexity. Complexity theory, which has gained increased attention in SLA, aims to ‘‘account for how the interacting parts of a com-plex system give rise to the system’s collective be-havior” (Larsen-Freeman, 2008, p. 1). From the perspective of complex systems, the levels of DST are not simply a linear progression, in which one skill is built upon another in a mechanical way. Each level represents a new level of complexity and a higher level of functioning. New skills emerge from the interaction of lower-level skills as a complex whole that is more than the sum-total of its parts. For example, the skill involved in being a creative chef involves much more—it is more complex—than the ability to follow many recipes. Similarly, being a uent speaker of a language is more com-plex than being able to form correct sentences. And knowing how to read people’s intentions in a for-eign environment is more complex than having knowledge of etiquette rules. Dynamic skill theory, then, is a way to make sense of these increasing lev-els of complexity. There are some other key features of complex skills as described by dynamic skill theory. Complex skills require a certain mastery of lower-level skills. One cannot make an omelet without knowing how to crack open an egg. But simply accumulating lower-level skills may not be sufcient to reach a higher level of cognitive complexity. Higher-level skills are not simply learned, they emerge from the interaction of lower-level skills. Emergence refers to the idea that a complex system reaches a new, higher state of organization. The new behavior ‘‘has some recogniz-able ‘wholeness’ ’’ extending beyond previous levels of functioning (Larsen-Freeman, 2008, p. 59). We experience emergence when we have an “a-ha” mo-ment of realization or insight; a young child experi-ences emergence as standing, balancing, and taking steps simply become “walking”; and the complex patterns of a school of sh emerge from the simpler interactions of individual sh. Emergence is not an automatic result of adding more elements to a system. It requires a critical mass of increased complexity and self-organization. For example, some cooks may be capable of follow-ing the steps required to make an omelet from start to nish (mapping), yet never reach the point at which they start to experiment with different types of omelets (system). Higher-level skills require ex-perimentation, and the ability to go beyond the pre-vious level of cognitive sophistication. In addition, it is not necessary to completely master every sub-skill to reach higher levels. One can be a creative cook in spite of having limited experience with par-ticular dishes or knowledge of only a few ingredi-ents. The key to becoming creative is not simply ac-cumulating experience, it is the ability to get comfortable with the ingredients at one’s disposal and learn to experiment in one’s own way. In cook-ing, as with linguaculture learning, creativity is a key indicator of advanced levels of learning. 4. Four levels of linguaculture learning This work uses the cognitive levels described by DST as a conceptual starting point for the Develop-mental Model of Linguaculture Learning. DMLL is intended for educators wishing to integrate both lan-guage and cultural learning into a single learning framework. It hopes to go beyond the “skill vs. awareness’’ dichotomy found in language and inter-cultural education. It proposes a roadmap of cogni-tive development—one that describes how language and cultural knowledge become more sophisticated

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