順天堂グローバル教養論集第一巻20160325
12/158

8Juntendo Journal of Global Studies, Vol. 1, (2016)over time. As that happens, the way that learners ex-perience a foreign linguaculture evolves. This evo-lution results not only in increased linguistic ability or cultural understanding, but also in an expanded sense of self. The ultimate goal of DMLL is not lin-guistic or cultural knowledge for its own sake. The four levels of DMLL represent a path towards per-sonal development through language learning and cultural exploration. DMLL assumes that as knowledge emerges at higher levels of complexity, it is integrated more fully into one’s cognitive systems in a process of neuroconstructivism (Sirois et al., 2007). This cog-nitive reconstruction happens primarily at the level of unconscious cognition. From the learner’s per-spective, this process is experienced as an increased familiarity and comfort of foreign linguaculture pat-terns, which become a more natural part of the self. DMLL proposes that linguaculture learning is expe-rienced at four different levels: i-1 (encountering), i-2 (experimenting), i-3 (integrating), and i-4 (bridg-ing). The “i’’ is representative of “identity’’ and re-fers generally to the expanding sense of self that can accompany language and cultural learning. This should not be confused with the “i’’ in i+1, which Krashen (1987) uses to refer to foreign language in-put. The lower case is chosen because a capital “I’’ can be confused with a lower-case “L,’’ i.e., “l.” Each of these levels represents a different way of processing the patterns of a foreign linguaculture. They are based on the idea of increased levels of cognitive complexity and the four levels of learning found in DST. These four levels are summarized in Figure 2. The circles represent changes in the learner’s sub-jective experience of the foreign linguaculture. For inexperienced learners, foreign languages and cul-tures are experienced as something alien to the self. Such foreignness is not necessarily experienced in negative terms—it can also engender curiosity or interest. In either case, however, a new linguaculture is felt to be outside of the self—something associ-ated with foreign people and places, rather than something that is familiar and natural. Helping learners have a constructive relationship with the foreignness of new linguaculture patterns is a cen-tral concern of this approach. Learning involves the development and expansion of the learner’s foreign language self and intercultural self (taken to-gether—linguaculture self). An important goal is that learners can “be themselves’’ in foreign linguis-tic and cultural contexts. As part of this, educators help learners understand the four levels of lingua-culture learning to encourage linguaculture aware-ness. Figure 2. Four levels of linguaculture learning

元のページ 

10秒後に元のページに移動します

※このページを正しく表示するにはFlashPlayer10.2以上が必要です