順天堂グローバル教養論集第一巻20160325
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9The developmental model of linguaculture learning Levels of cognitive complexity are task and situ-ation dependent. It is not the case that once learn-ers function at a higher level of cognitive complex-ity, they never return to the lower levels. Learners go back and forth between these levels depending on the demands of the current situation and task. A learner may be able to make small talk effortlessly (i-3—integrating), but struggle to put together complex sentences when talking about politics (i-2—experimenting), or need to use a dictionary when talking about an unfamiliar topic (i-1—en-countering). Some tasks (such as translating an ar-ticle from one language to another) may require processing at every level, as the translator learns new words (i-2), constructs sentences (i-2), reads for overall meaning (i-3), and reects on different ways of translating something (i-4). Skilled learn-ers learn to switch smoothly between different lev-els of processing. The following section will explore these four lev-els of linguaculture learning in turn. The descrip-tions delineate the ways in which how we experi-ence language and culture learning reects the level of cognitive complexity we bring to a task. In other words, a beginning language learner is not only in-capable of performing higher level skills in a for-eign language but their way of experiencing the for-eign language is fundamentally different from learners at higher levels of cognitive complexity. In this view, there is no automatic correlation between the amount of new knowledge acquired, and the level of cognitive complexity a learner attains. Learners may study thousands of vocabulary words or memorize countless cultural facts, yet never put that knowledge to use in more sophisticated ways. When this happens, not only will they have trouble accomplishing higher-level tasks but their experi-ence of the foreign linguaculture will not evolve. For learners who make steady progress and reach high levels of prociency, there may be a natural and uninterrupted progression to greater cognitive complexity. Such learners are, however, relatively rare. Many learners get stuck or discouraged when the efforts made do not seem to correspond to any feeling of progress or increased ability. The four levels of complexity described by this model pro-vide a developmental roadmap that can help learners understand what they need to do to make further progress. i-1: Encountering The linguaculture learning process can be under-stood as an evolution in the learner’s relationship with the foreign linguaculture. The rst step in learning is an encounter with foreign patterns—a process of discovery and initial contact with some-thing that was previously unknown. At this i-1 level, learning is experienced as a process of accumulating individual skills and pieces of knowledge, such as memorizing phrases, practicing sounds, remember-ing lists of words, and so on. At this level, it is dif-cult for monolingual learners to imagine what it might feel like to speak a foreign language. Learners may feel overwhelmed by a seemingly endless list of things to learn. They may not be able to see that higher levels of learning await—levels involving not just memorization and repetition, but also cre-ation and self-expression. Learners with little experience of foreign people and places typically see them in simplistic or stereo-typical terms. At the level of encountering, cultural knowledge is experienced as discrete and factual: Paris is the capital of France; in China people eat rice; or Italians are passionate. For such learners, learning about culture is experienced as knowing or not knowing—learning the facts about a particular place or cultural community. Such facts are funda-mentally experienced as foreign to the self, either in positive terms (foreign people and places are seen as exotic, i.e., foreign in an interesting way) or nega-

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