12Juntendo Journal of Global Studies, Vol. 1, (2016)learners see that their own cultural perspective is just one of many. In some cases, perspective shifting may involve a cultural identity dilemma, in which learners feel caught between contrasting cultural worldviews. In order to go beyond this, they need to reach an even higher level of intercultural under-standing, namely, bridging. When learners are mak-ing progress with both linguistic and cultural pat-terns, they nd that becoming comfortable switching between languages goes hand-in-hand with switch-ing cultural points of view. i-4 Bridging The i-4 level of learning is exponentially more complex than i-3. It is the level at which a tennis player becomes a tennis coach, a cook goes beyond recipes, and a language learner becomes a language teacher. It involves a broadening of perspective be-yond one’s individual experience—a system-of-sys-tems view, which incorporates more of a meta-per-spective. While i-3 thinking is focused on the particulars of a particular system, i-4 thinking in-volves principles that can be applied more widely. A language teacher at the i-3 level, for example, may give advice based on personal learning experience, since that is how they themselves have found suc-cess. At the i-4 level, however, a teacher under-stands that there is too much variation in language learning to dene a “best’’ approach. Rather, they look for principles or guidelines that describe effec-tive ways to approach learning challenges more generally. The i-4 level of cultural awareness goes beyond the comparison of any two contrasting cultural worldviews. It seeks organizing principles to under-stand cultural patterns at a meta-level. While this may include making generalized statements about patterns of cultural difference, it avoids cause-and-effect thinking. For example, at the i-2 level, some-one might think that patterns of cultural difference are the “cause’’ of behavior, and say, for example, that “Japanese act that way because they are collec-tivistic.’’ At the i-3 level, learners realize that labels like this are only meaningful when used to compare patterns to those found in other places. At the i-4 level, learners extend their learning beyond the pat-terns found in a particular community. At the i-4 level, learners may consider different ways of con-struing the concept of collectivism, for example, to see which conceptualization has the most explana-tory power. While this system-of-system level of understand-ing is described as a form of meta-cognition, DMLL assumes that such knowledge is often intuitive, and may be hard to articulate. Complex cognition can involve a greater ability to explain one’s own knowledge, but as new knowledge is internalized, it becomes more automatic and may actually sink be-neath conscious awareness. Highly skilled language users may forget the grammar lessons from when they rst started studying. Similarly, experienced in-terculturalists may not have a ready denition for the concept of culture, yet be highly competent in-terculturally. The complexity of their knowledge is evidenced by their expert intuitions—their ability to manage complex patterns creatively and without a need for conscious calculation (Klein, 1998). Such intuitive knowledge feels natural not because it is simple, but because it functions so smoothly at a high level of complexity (Shaules, 2014). 5. Implications This article has given a brief overview of the De-velopmental Model of Linguaculture Learning. This nal section will briey consider some of the impli-cations of this model, set out a conceptual frame-work to implement this approach in the classroom, as well as suggest ways in which this model could serve as a starting point for research.