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14Juntendo Journal of Global Studies, Vol. 1, (2016)As shown in Figure 4, these elements, taken to-gether, would constitute one version of a Linguacul-ture Classroom Approach—one that conceives of the classroom learning space as a zone in which to experiment with foreign linguaculture patterns, an expanded foreign language self, and the develop-ment of a more intercultural self, i.e., one that can act as a linguistic and cultural bridge in intercultural contexts. This model has been introduced as a way to orga-nize pedagogy. In that sense, it is primarily designed for educators. At the same time, students may bene-t from understanding different levels of learning, as a way of empowering them and encouraging au-tonomy. Many learners may feel stuck in their jour-ney of learning—trudging along, lesson after lesson, with no sense of where they are going or why they should expend so much effort. As they learn to en-gage with foreign linguacultures at higher levels, they will see that language and culture learning are much more than a set of skills or a way to get a job. Linguaculture learning can lead to a transformative experience and an expansion of the self. In that sense, this model is designed for anyone who sees language and culture learning as a form of cultural exploration and personal growth.7. Growth versus mastery:—a research agenda Learners at the rst two levels of linguaculture learning (encountering and experimenting), tend to experience learning as a need for “mastery’’ of spe-cic knowledge and skills. The latter two levels (in-tegrating and bridging) tend to be experienced more in terms of growth—as learning that is a dynamic, never-ending process. One area of possible research would test whether an understanding of the levels of linguaculture learning can help learners develop a more growth-oriented view of learning. Pedagogy could focus on helping to reframe students’ under-standing of learning itself, so that they are able to see language and cultural learning in terms of growth and development, rather than as simple mastery of knowledge and skills. Research could then measure the impact of this perceptual shift. It could also test whether learners who tend to see learning in terms of growth experience less cognitive resistance to for-eign patterns of linguaculture. Another area of research could explore whether increased language awareness has an inuence on cultural awareness, and vice versa. At issue is whether increased levels of cognitive complexity re-lated to language should be seen as relatively sepa-rate or as relatively integrated with the cognitive complexity of cultural learning. Is language aware-ness fundamentally separate from cultural aware-ness, or are they different elements of a largely inte-grated cognitive whole? 8. Conclusion This article has sketched out a developmental model of linguaculture learning from a theoretical perspective. These ideas are currently being applied to classroom practice in university language educa-tion in Japan. Future publications will present the results of these efforts and provide more guidance for teachers interested in this approach. In addition, DMLL will need to be elaborated in more detail. There is a need to clarify the theoretical foundations upon which this model rests and to relate this con-ceptualization to existing approaches. To make this model of further value, a body of practice must be developed that demonstrates that DMLL can be of use to classroom teachers. Learning outcomes must be compared to existing educational approaches. As with any educational model, the proof is in classroom outcomes, and growth in the minds of learners.ContactFor more information about DMLL, please contact the author at shaules@juntendo.ac.jp.

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