順天堂グローバル教養論集第一巻20160325
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20Juntendo Journal of Global Studies, Vol. 1, (2016)(Dörnyei & Ottó, 1998). This process-oriented ap-proach on motivation considers learner motivation as something that evolves over time and that all mo-tivation levels are related. This is where motiva-tional SRC is executed and self-motivating strategy training can take place (Dörnyei, 2001). In this pro-cess, self-regulation or action control sustains L2 learners’ executive motivation at the actional stage. The present study takes this process-oriented po-sition and examines ‘‘the degree to which individual learners are active participants in their own learn-ing’’ (Dörnyei, 2001, p. 191); it also assumes that L2 learners’ SRC is a potential that L2 instruction can elicit through individualized strategy training.2.2. Assessing self-motivational capacity The self-regulation study is also located in an-other paradigm shift of L2 IDs literature, namely that questionnaire use has moved from research to educational purposes. In order to best promote self-motivation in language learners when choosing ap-propriate learning strategies, Dörnyei (2001) recom-mends to periodically investigate learners’ perspectives in actual classrooms through question-naires, rather than simply using the questionnaire for research. This helps teachers to identify better approaches to meet learners’ needs and to assist them in raising their awareness of desirable strate-gies. Self-regulation research (not limited to L2 studies) often uses questionnaires as the main instru-ment, while some researchers try to understand the participants’ responses qualitatively (e.g., Bown & White, 2010). Because self-regulation has gained attention in the last decade, the only well-known L2 question-naire to date is Tseng et al.’s (2006) SRCVOC. The theoretical framework they used was Dörnyei’s (2001) ve facets of self-motivating strategies which was based on Julius Kuhl’s Action Control Theory (Kuhl, 1992, 2002). These facets were namely (a) commitment control regarding original goal commitment; (b) metacognitive control for concentration and avoidance of procrastination; (c) satiation control to eliminate boredom and increase interests to the task; (d) emotion control to manage disruptive emotional states or moods; and (e) envi-ronmental control to eliminate negative environ-mental inuences. By choosing vocabulary learning as the focus, the researchers developed the questionnaire through three validating steps. First, the researchers gener-ated 45 questionnaire items by reviewing studies on vocabulary learning strategies and conducting focus group interviews with two groups of Taiwan-based university students. Then, the researchers piloted the 45 items with 192 college-level EFL students in Tai-wan for item analysis, which helped reduce the number of items. Finally, they evaluated the nal 20-item questionnaire with 172 senior high school EFL students in Taiwan. By performing conrma-tory factor analysis, the researchers proved the reli-abilities and validity of their newly developed ques-tionnaire instrument. They recommend researchers to develop similar instruments by choosing a partic-ular learning domain to increase the validity of the self-regulation construct. The present study thus replicates Tseng et al.’s (2006) procedures in devel-oping the SRCVOC questionnaire by choosing an-other L2 learning and teaching domain.2.3. Writing strategies and self-regula-tion This study chose academic essay writing as the focused domain. While quite a few studies exist on writing strategies and self-regulation in rst lan-guage (L1) composition literature, not much re-search on these topics is found for L2 writing. Both L1 and L2 studies on academic writing strategies began by focusing on identifying the strat-egies used by successful writers. For example, Hart-

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