順天堂グローバル教養論集第一巻20160325
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21Motivational self-regulatory capacity in L2 writingley and Branthwaite (1989) surveyed 88 British psychologists who had a profound amount of publi-cations; they then identied the writers’ habits and attitudes toward their regular academic writing. On the other hand, Torrance, Thomas, and Robinson (1994) surveyed 101 graduate social science re-search students in British universities and reported their planning of writing, rather than how they com-bined multiple writing strategies, led to their suc-cessful outcome. The above studies were predomi-nantly descriptive in nature, without touching much on L2 instruction. There are many self-regulation studies on L1 aca-demic writing (Graham & Harris, 2000; Schunk & Zimmerman, 2007; Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994), and all these studies were inuenced by socio-cog-nitive perspectives. For example, Zimmerman and Bandura (1994) examined the relationship between ‘‘self-regulatory efcacy’’ with various attitudinal and performance scales gathered from 95 L1 Eng-lish students in U.S. college composition courses. They found that the students’ scores on their self-regulatory efcacy inventory correlated with their scores on two other attitudinal scales (i.e., grade goals and self-evaluative standards). They found no correlation in efcacy scores between two perfor-mance scales (i.e., verbal aptitude and nal grades). Their ndings indicate that self-regulation strongly related to other aspects of learner attitudes, but was not connected to learners’ performance saliently. In L2 writing contexts, there are only a limited number of strategy studies, but some existing L2 writing strategies studies suggest new perspectives. For example, Cohen and Brooks-Carson (2001) re-ported possible transfers between academic writing in two languages by administering a questionnaire with 39 college students who were English-speaking learners of French. Petrić and Czárl (2003), on the other hand, emphasized the importance of question-naire validation combined with qualitative inquiries. These suggestions should be incorporated in the questionnaire development process of this study. In reviewing IDs in L2 writing, Kormos (2012) recently introduced SRC as L2 learners’ capacity and process to manage their own thoughts, emotion, and behavior. She further explained that self-regula-tion puts learners’ affect into action for better learn-ing through effective learning strategy use. As currently there is no questionnaire instrument that measures motivational SRC in academic essay writing regardless of task importance in higher edu-cation, the present study replicates Tseng et al.’s (2006) questionnaire development in this domain. 3. Organization & Method As self-regulation, motivation, and L2 writing are all process-oriented in nature, this study will also be reported in a process-oriented manner, instead of following the format of typical IMRD research pa-pers. Instead of calling the following section as the results section as research papers normally do, I will call the section as the questionnaire development and report the rst two phases of the development, describing detailed procedures and results at the same time. The questionnaire was developed in Fall 2011. The intended use of this instrument is to assess indi-vidual learners’ SRC in L2 academic essay writing. As this is a questionnaire validation study, the cur-rent study does not project specic research ques-tions as is normally expected in quantitative re-search. Instead, it describes how I designed the questionnaire and ensured its validity; discuss how the instrument can be further developed; and ex-plore potential pictures of motivational SRC for learners in college EAP programs in the United States. Although this study initially planned reporting all three phases, this paper mainly reports on the rst two phases namely (a) developing item pools from

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