順天堂グローバル教養論集第一巻20160325
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22Juntendo Journal of Global Studies, Vol. 1, (2016)student-initiated data; and (b) conducting item anal-yses after piloting an initial questionnaire with a learner group. For all statistical computations in these two phases, I used the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) for Windows Student Version 18.0. The nal phase of this questionnaire development is (c) evaluating the instrument with a larger L2 learner body, which will be reported in my future research. In the conclusion section, I will discuss how the questionnaire can be further developed for the third phase and concerns that emerged for the -nal stage. Finally, I will describe revised proposal for the third phase of this study.4. Developing the item pool (Phase 1) In order to write the scale items for this study, I rst developed the item pool and reviewed three dif-ferent sources: (a) the nal 20 items in Tseng et al. (2006); (b) lists of self-motivating strategies in Dörnyei (2001); and (c) questionnaire studies on self-regulation (Zimmerman & Bandura, 1994) and writing strategies (Cohen & Brooks-Carson, 2001; Hartley & Branthwaite, 1989; Petrić & Czárl, 2003; Torrance et al., 1994). I rst rephrased Tseng et al.’s (2006) items for essay writing. As this study repli-cates Tseng et al.’s (2006) work, the item pool for this study also assumed that the questionnaire would measure the same ve facets of motivational SRC suggested in Dörnyei (2001). I then added 30 items relevant to the subscales based on the other sources. While items were initially drawn from the literature, in order to include the voice from the target popula-tion of L2 learners, I asked 15 students to brain-storm ideas on how they control their motivation. The students attended an intermediate writing course in the EAP program and were asked to brain-storm their ideas through free-writing prompts adapted from Tseng et al. (2006). After explaining the study purpose, I randomly distributed the ve different prompts to the students. For each topic, three different students brainstormed ideas based on their experiences. The information elicited through this activity was used to narrow down items relevant to this focused context from 50 to 40 items. The questionnaire was designed to ask respon-dents to tick one option that best described their aca-demic essay writing experience, using a Likert-type attitude scale, which ranged from ‘‘1: strongly dis-agree’’ to ‘‘6: strongly agree.’’ In addition, it also asked respondents to ll out four kinds of prole in-formation (i.e., their major, the last writing course, and the year they completed the English require-ments, current university status) as well as an open-ended question, ‘‘how do you control your motiva-tion for academic writing?’’ The questionnaire was prepared online for the convenience of the intended participants in the phase 2 and the actual question-naire administration was scheduled toward the end of semester (i.e., late November, the end of the Fall 2011 semester).5. Piloting the instrument (Phase 2)5.1. Participants Participants in the second phase of this study were 56 L2 students who nished the EAP pro-gram’s writing courses (intermediate, advanced-un-dergraduate, advanced-graduate) in Fall 2007 to Spring 2011. This population was chosen as they were similar to the target population in phase three (i.e., current students in the program’s writing courses). Of the 56 participants, two students nished their writing requirements in Fall 2007, 12 in 2008, 13 in 2009, 16 in 2010, and 10 in Spring 2011 (three did not specify whether they actually nished the re-quirements or not). More than half of the partici-pants (n = 30) completed the advanced level gradu-ate writing course, while the other half (n = 22) nished their requirements by completing the ad-

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