順天堂グローバル教養論集第一巻20160325
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70 研究論文 医療の場における異文化理解Cultural Competence in Medical Settings大野 直子1)*Naoko ONO1)*Abstract There is a growing need for cultural competence in medical settings in Japan, particu-larly as Tokyo will host the 2020 Olympics and Paralympics. Bridging the cultural and language gaps at medical centers is an important issue for medical professionals. Cultural competence in healthcare has received little attention in recent years. This paper explores the cultural differences among ethnicities and discusses the cultural competence required in medical settings. A literature review was conducted using Ichu-shi and Google Scholar. In addition, we examined books on cultural competence in medical settings. We consid-ered values, worldviews, communication practices, timeliness, expression of pain, family and gender issues, pregnancy and birth, end of life, and health beliefs and practices. The paper compares and contrasts these issues in Asia, Russia, the United States, and the Mid-dle East based on the literature ndings. The results show two trends. First, persons of low socio-economic status are less likely to be concerned about preventive medicine. Sec-ond, Asians tend to be stoic and not express pain. Further research is required to conrm these trends. One study in the literature search described best practices for providing cul-turally competent care, as well as practices to avoid. In summary, the study recommends trying to understand how patients’ values inuence their behavior. Our ndings suggest that understanding cultural differences is important to developing cultural competence in medical settings. Thus, an educational program to foster this development should be in-cluded in medical, nursing, and health sciences universities. We also make suggestions on best practices for being culturally competent. These suggestions could contribute to the reduction of cultural friction in medical settings in Japan. Key words異文化理解、外国人患者、異文化対応能力Cultural competence, Foreign patient, Cross Cultural Communication 順天堂グローバル教養論集 第一巻(2016)70–79頁1)順天堂大学 国際教養学部(Email:na-ono@juntendo.ac.jp)*責任著者:大野 直子 〔October 9, 2015 原稿受付〕〔January 8, 2016 掲載決定〕

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