順天堂グローバル教養論集第一巻20160325
8/158

4Juntendo Journal of Global Studies, Vol. 1, (2016)a complete reconceptualization of the nature of lan-guage teaching and learning’’ (Diaz, 2013, p. 10). Teachers cannot simply add culture to language learning, they must rethink their approach to foreign language pedagogy. The model presented in this paper, hereafter re-ferred to as the Developmental Model of Linguacul-ture Learning (DMLL), is intended to help educa-tors conceive of language and culture learning as a single integrated process—as linguaculture learn-ing. DMLL argues that, from the neurocognitive perspective, both language and culture learning are fundamentally similar—they involve the integration of foreign patterns into (largely unconscious) pro-cesses of embodied cognition. DMLL proposes that there are four levels of linguaculture learning: en-countering, experimenting, integrating, and bridg-ing. As we will see, these represent increasing levels of cognitive complexity—learners’ mental process-ing of foreign patterns becomes increasingly sophis-ticated. As this occurs, the learning experience evolves. What starts out seeming alien—something that may provoke resistance and frustration—be-comes more integrated into the psychological terri-tory of the self. This model uses the term linguaculture, which re-fers generally to the idea that language and culture are best thought of as an integral whole (Agar, 1994; Diaz, 2013; Risager, 2015). From the perspective of social cognition, language and culture can both be conceived of as ecosystems of shared meaning (Fan-tini, 1997a). A discourse community shares a sense of what words mean and how language should be used, just as members of a cultural community share notions of how to interpret behavior and make sense of the world. Linguaculture communities emerge from complex interaction between many individu-als, and thus language and culture have no clear boundaries or essential qualities. Linguaculture is an emergent property; thus, there can be no singular English language, for example, or French culture. Such terms are simply labels that represent patterns of meaning and behavior, and are not intended to imply any singular or essential quality. This model is built upon a deep culture perspec-tive, which emphasizes ways in which intuitive cul-tural knowledge shapes our perceptions outside of conscious awareness (Shaules, 2007, 2014). Shared linguistic and cultural knowledge provides frame-works for interaction, or as Agar puts it, ‘‘the fence around the territory, and then sets individuals loose within those limits’’ (Agar, 1994, p. 39). In this view, participating in a linguaculture community does not mean that everyone acts in the same way; rather, they share patterns of interpretation. Just as speaking a particular language does not determine what you will say, sharing in a cultural community does not determine behavior. Instead, linguaculture knowledge allows you to understand how others in a discourse community will interpret what you say and do. Linguaculture is a creative medium that each individual uses in their own way. DMLL is described in terms consistent with cog-nitive neuroscience—it describes learning in terms of complex networks of embodied knowledge. Yet its primary focus is not technical, and it certainly does not seek to reduce learners to a set of neural processes. While the processes described are com-plex, what emerges from a neurocognitive perspec-tive is a holistic view of the learner. As we integrate foreign linguistic and cultural patterns into our minds, we experience growth and potentially trans-formational change. This model aims to help make sense of and encourage that process.3. Adjusting to foreignness To bridge the gap between language and cultural learning objectives, DMLL proposes that the goal of both language and culture learning is the adjustment to, and internalization of, foreign patterns of embod-

元のページ 

10秒後に元のページに移動します

※このページを正しく表示するにはFlashPlayer10.2以上が必要です