順天堂グローバル教養論集第一巻20160325
9/158

5The developmental model of linguaculture learningied meaning (Lund, 2001). The foundational insight of this approach is that linguistic and cultural knowledge (the ability to speak a language uently and appropriately, intuit the intentions of others, and follow unspoken cultural expectations) are primarily intuitive. While such abilities may feel natural to us, they involve complex, deeply rooted cognitive pro-cesses that are out-of-reach of conscious introspec-tion (Kahneman, 2011; Kihlstrom, 1987; Nisbett & Wilson, 1977; Wilson, 2002). Modifying this hidden cognitive architecture is difcult because these pro-cesses are so foundational to the self. When we suc-ceed, however, we experience growth and possible transformation. Central to this model is the notion of foreign-ness—the gap between linguaculture patterns en-countered in the outside world and the patterns of unconscious cognition within the learner. Openness to novelty is not the default setting for most living things (Zajonc, 2001). Like any organism con-fronted with a foreign stimulus, learners face a stressful/rewarding adjustment challenge. They must defend themselves against perceived threats and remain open to potential benets. This view of learning as an adaptive challenge can be found in research into intercultural adaptation (Kim, 2001). Within the eld of traditional Second Language Ac-quisition (SLA), however, such cognitive adjust-ment is often discussed simply in terms of linguistic ‘‘interference.’’ This refers to linguistic patterns in the L1 getting in the way of using the L2. DMLL ar-gues that cognitive patterns of language are deeply rooted and intertwined with cultural patterns as well. Larsen-Freeman (2011, p. 57) refers to these cognitive habits as a ‘‘neural commitment’’ to the L1. She points out that constructing new linguistic knowledge is not easy because ‘‘language learning is not just about adding knowledge to an unchang-ing system. It is about changing the system’’ (Larsen-Freeman, 2011, p. 57). Describing something as foreign can sound pejo-rative in English. To call someone a ‘‘foreigner’’ emphasizes that person’s outside status and smacks of intolerance. ‘‘Foreignness” implies intrusion, lack of acceptance, and a threat to the functioning of an organism. For better or worse, however, foreign-ness is at the center of linguaculture learning. Learn-ers must experiment with new sounds, new ways of organizing and expressing their thoughts, and new ways of being and acting. This process of internaliz-ing and adjusting to foreign patterns is difcult and often stressful. It is no accident that learners may speak of being traumatized by negative experiences with language learning. Similarly, culture stress and culture shock are a common reaction to extended stays in a foreign place (Bennett, 1998; Furnham & Bochner, 1986; Oberg, 1960; Ward, Bochner, & Furnham, 2001). The model presented here treats the psycho-cultural stresses of learning as a primary concern for educators. As a way to understand how learners manage the deep-rooted cognitive changes necessary for lingua-culture learning, this model borrows from dynamic skill theory (DST)—an approach to understanding learning and cognitive development. Developed by educational psychologist Kurt Fischer, and grounded in Piaget’s cognitive development stages, it seeks to understand the steps involved in learning new skills (Fischer, 2008; Fischer & Yan, 2002; Fischer, 1980; Fischer & Bidell, 2006). DST describes cognitive development as a series of stage-like shifts of in-creasing complexity, each level being built from simpler skills at a previous level. It describes trans-formational rules that ‘‘specify the particular devel-opmental steps by which a skill moves gradually from one level to the next” (Fischer, 1980, p. 477). DST is intended as a common framework for un-derstanding learning throughout many domains—cognitive skills, socio-emotional skills, language, and motor skills. While typically used to understand

元のページ 

10秒後に元のページに移動します

※このページを正しく表示するにはFlashPlayer10.2以上が必要です