100Juntendo Journal of Global Studies, Vol. 2, (2017)and expected.
3. Set individual reading goals for students based on needs and proficiency levels.
4. Regularly exploit ER for in-class discussions on reading content, progress, or experience. 5. Make progress visible through the use of Weekly Progress Sheets and Reading Record Sheets to facilitate tracking, sharing, and feed-back. These recommendations were seen as corrective interventions. Not all of them were implemented to the letter, however, and some additional measures were also taken. The next sections will describe how each recommendation was implemented, followed by an explanation of some of the theory that in-formed these decisions. From these practices and theories, we can see there are many ways for suffi-cient engagement behaviors and autonomous prac-tices to become established. Learners can act in ac-cordance with their L2 future selves (Dornyei, 2009); they can become empowered by experiences of success or being part of an exciting project (Deci and Ryan, 2000); they can trust and follow the ex-perts guiding them or the system they are part of (Yashima, 2014); or they can decide that the poten-tial benefits of participation are worth investing ef-fort in (Hulleman et al., 2008). It is important to un-derstand that the exact motivation varies from learner to learner but is always complex and dy-namic and changes according to internal and exter-nal factors (Larsen-Freemen, 2006; Mercer, 2011a). One of the reasons for motivational differences is the experiences each student has had with learning English in the past, and the experiences they have within the ER program (Mercer, 2011a; Miyahara, 2015). An effective program should strive for suffi-cient engagement while trying to ensure positive and successful experiences by students. 2.2. Provide better rationale and ER edu-cation During the 2016 year, the course orientation was expanded to two weeks and more time was allotted for ER orientation and onboarding. Onboarding, also known as organizational socialization, is the process by which new group members (users, learn-ers, employees, etc.) acquire the necessary knowl-edge, skills, or behaviors to function at a minimal level with new tools or in a new environment. The 2016 orientation and onboarding aimed to better ex-plain the reasons for doing ER and the requirements and expectations for success, and make students functional as readers/users with our system. Teach-ers carefully helped students to choose books, and then actually gave them portions of class time to read silently―20 minutes of each class in the first week, and then 15 minutes of each class in the sec-ond week. By the time the orientation period ended, all students had checked out books and even com-pleted a few. Students were also shown the Reading record sheet and instructed on where to find word counts in graded readers, and how to fill in the form to track their reading progress. There are many reasons for providing a more sub-stantial orientation and better onboarding for ex-pected behaviors of student participants. First of all, few students have experienced ER at all, and among those who have, great differences in their under-standing of ER exist, something Mikami (2016) found as well. In addition, one of the reasons for placing ER so centrally in the program is that it is a way to promote learner autonomy, and that begins with awareness-raising (thereafter followed by prac-tice and appropriation) (Lave and Wenger, 1991). Likewise, careful onboarding has been found to sig-nificantly increase continuation with services to which users are new (Porter, 2006) as it reduces the need for these new users to struggle to learn unfa-miliar procedures at the same time as they are de-