順天堂グローバル教養論集_第二巻_2017年3月(ISSN2424-0001)
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102Juntendo Journal of Global Studies, Vol. 2, (2017)dominant (Gagne and Deci, 2005). It is believed that initial extrinsic motivation can evolve into intrinsic motivation as long as the goals of the intervention align with the goals for the students. That is, if stu-dents believe they are being pressured to do some-thing that is for their own good, they are more likely to accept it and even eventually appropriate the re-quired behavior. Pigott (2011) also found the extrin-sic motivation of program requirements to be very important for students in Japan, who often look to teacher or program-imposed goals for behavior di-rections. 2.4. Setting reading goals The original recommendation was for individual reading goals to be set. This proved difficult in prac-tice because we did not have a good idea of the gen-eral proficiency of students, their learning experi-ences to date, nor their attitudes to L2 reading upon their entry into our program. Instead, the decision was made to create minimal requirements (100,000 words) and then see if students decided to invest more in ER over the term. Concrete requirements, in the form of word counts, page counts, or book counts, can help set interim goals for students, help-ing to build what are called “tiny habits” (Fogg & Hreha, 2010) as they progress toward volume levels that lead to skill improvements. In our program, we required 100,000 words for first term, 100,000 words as a special summer assignment, and 100,000 words for second term. This was done to ensure that students would have clear and achievable goals (King, 2011) and could reach a total word count where they would be more likely to experience tangible gains in reading speed and proficiency test improvement (Nishizawa, Yo-shioka, & Fukada, 2010; Beglar & Hunt, 2014). One of the problems of many ER programs is their short length, which may often not allow for a sufficient amount of reading to see tangible improvements in reading speed, level increases, or improvements on standardized tests (Carney, 2016). Even this may be insufficient in the case of some students, according to Nishizawa and Yoshioka (2016). As it turns out, 90 out of 119 students in 2016 cleared the 100,000 word count target in the first term.2.5. Integration of ER-related activities into regular classes Since it was found in 2015 that conducting dis-cussions based on graded readers resulted in both more reading and richer discussions, the recommen-dation of adding more (especially speaking) activi-ties based on graded readers to regular classes was made. In 2016, teachers followed this recommenda-tion and regularly had students talk about their prog-ress with ER and exchange information on books they had read. At the end of term, all students were responsible for doing a portfolio presentation where they talked about their progress with learning over the term, making use of evidence from their portfo-lios (Berger et al., 2014). Students could point to the number of books or words they had read, reading speed increases (if they are using the XReading sys-tem which tracks reading speed), or their progress in moving up in levels to show proficiency. This decision was informed by self-determination theory, which posits that people want to feel a part of something (Deci and Ryan, 2000), and socio-cul-tural theories of language learning that stress the importance of learning happening through a process of socialization that necessarily requires social inter-action and involves identity formation or reforma-tion (Little, 2001; Ushioda 2011a; Lave and Wenger, 1991). At the same time, requiring regular interac-tion was thought to be advantageous for encourag-ing habitual behaviors by making it easier for learn-ers to learn more about books available and gain ideas for working reading into busy schedules,

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