順天堂グローバル教養論集_第二巻_2017年3月(ISSN2424-0001)
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103Extensive Reading Onboardingsomething McGonigal calls exercising the “I will” power (2013). Being regularly reminded of the im-portance of ER through such activities, learners can be encouraged to turn reading into a habit and over-come anxiety-based procrastination. Autonomy can emerge from these habits when they are formed in a social setting into which they are socialized and whose reality they accept and trust.2.6. Enhancing the visibility of progress through the use of Reading Record sheets to facilitate tracking, shar-ing, and feedback   In 2016, the decision was made not to use the Weekly Progress Sheets as they required extra time to distribute, fill in, and monitor. In addition, key in-formation would already be contained in the Read-ing Record sheet, making it superfluous, and so only that sheet was used. The Reading Record sheet has multiple functions. It is a record of the individual books the student has read and their impressions of the content and difficulty level of those books. This helps students to remember more details about their reading, something that helps when communicative activities based on ER are employed in classes. The Reading Record sheet also becomes a progress sheet for student reading, so that the student herself can see how she is doing, and when progress is dis-cussed in class, compare herself to other students. Finally, teachers and administrators can monitor stu-dent progress with ER (including word counts and level changes), providing advice or assistance when necessary, in a timely fashion. When records are kept and made visible to the learner, the teacher, and even peers, this can become a system of formative feedback for learners, facili-tating both learning and autonomous development (Wiliam, 2011). Tracking carefully with the aim of reaching 100,000 words gives learners the ability to set interim goals and to always know how they are doing in relation to those goals. The learner can see the goal, see the progress, compare that with others, and make adjustments to performance. In so doing, any amount of reading can provide the learner with formative feedback on their performance and build learning management or behavioral management skills so important for autonomous learner develop-ment. Indeed, the act of tracking performance has been associated with better behavioral performance in many endeavors, including for example diets, where such tracking is known as keeping a food di-ary, a popular and successful technique (Burke et al., 2011). At the end of the term, students were re-sponsible for giving portfolio presentations, men-tioned earlier, which amounted to a very public dec-laration of language accomplishments and improvements (Berger et al., 2014).3. The 2016 program cohort and ER results  The 2016 program cohort experienced the same number of contact hours, but a slightly different cur-riculum and different expectations for ER. Greater use was made of the portfolio system, and in addi-tion to ER, the results of twice-weekly quick writing assignments and weekly vocabulary quizzes were tracked. Institutional expectations for participation Table 2 Numbers of books completed per student in the first term of 2016 (n=119)

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