順天堂グローバル教養論集_第二巻_2017年3月(ISSN2424-0001)
68/156

661. Introduction Many Japanese see English learning as a struggle. Ninety percent of Japanese adults, for example, re-port having little confidence in using English, 55% report not liking English, and 90% of adults are dis-satisfied with their English education in school (Be-nesse, 2006). Broadly speaking, student motivation starts high in junior high school, but drops sharply by high school (Hayashi, 2005). Nearly 70% of high school students report that they either are indifferent (40%) or don’t like English (27.7%) (Benesse, 2007). Critics argue that such negative feelings are tied to Japan’s poor performance in English learn-ing overall (“English skills of Japanese students fail  Practical Research Report Linguaculture Resistance: An Intercultural Adjustment Perspective on Negative Learner Attitudes in JapanJoseph SHAULES1)*Abstract This article reports on an exploratory study of negative attitudes towards English lan-guage learning among Japanese learners. 255 statements about English learning were ana-lyzed from the perspective of resistance, a term originating in research into intercultural adjustment. Resistance is conceptualized as a critical or defensive response to the adap-tive demands of a foreign experience or environment. The notion of linguaculture resis-tance extends this idea to the context of language learning as well. This work argues that while struggling language learners are often seen as lacking in motivation, an intercultural adjustment perspective suggests that resistance is a natural, though not desirable, part of the learning process. Resistance is said to be associated with critical value judgments, with learners blaming themselves for disappointing learning outcomes. Results showed that negative student comments provided evidence of resistance, including self-criticism and psychological distancing. The notion of resistance is proposed as a way to gain in-sight into, and destigmatize, negative attitudes among language learners. Ideas for further research are suggested. Key wordsResistance, Linguaculture, Motivation, Learner Attitudes, Intercultural AdjustmentJuntendo Journal of Global Studies, Vol. 2, pp. 66–78 (2017)1)Faculty of International Liberal Arts, Juntendo University  (Email: shaules@juntendo.ac.jp)*Corresponding author: Joseph SHAULES 〔Received on September 16, 2016〕〔Accepted on January 25, 2017〕

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