順天堂グローバル教養論集_第二巻_2017年3月(ISSN2424-0001)
69/156

67Linguaculture Resistanceto meet government targets,” 2016; Reesor, 2003). Indeed, negative learner attitudes and a lack of con-fidence in English are sometimes presented as symptoms of a critical failure of English language education in Japan (Yoshida, 2013). These struggles are reflected in pervasive nega-tive student attitudes towards English. Although English is seen as important, many learners are un-happy with their own ability, do not like studying English, and find English irrelevant for themselves personally (Lafaye & Tsuda, 2002; Morita, 2013). Teachers complain that many students are disen-gaged, and that poor attitudes among learners are a major demotivating factor in their work (Sugino, 2010). For educators, dealing with negative learning attitudes is an ongoing, pervasive challenge. Research into negative attitudes among Japanese learners often focuses on factors that demotivate students (Agawa et al., 2011; Kikuchi, 2013, 2015). Many Japanese students report resistance to vocabu-lary and grammar learning, anxiety about English, and are said to demonstrate an “insular mentality” that creates an aversion to effort (Agawa et al., 2011, p. 11). Language teachers themselves have been shown to be a significant demotivating factor (Kikuchi, 2013), and negative attitudes have also been associated with conflicted feelings about inter-nationalization (Burgess, 2013; Morita, 2013; Yas-hima, 2009). Discussion of negative attitudes often carries with it an implicit assumption of failure or lack. Teachers may complain, for example, that their students lack motivation, implying that having motivation is nor-mal, and lacking it is a failure on the part of the learner. Research that associates low motivation with a lack of interest in internationalism (Yashima, 2009, 2013), implies that learners should have an interest in internationalism. Similar assumptions can be seen in the use of the term willingness to commu-nicate, which has been proposed as another key to learning success (Yashima, 2002). This term implies that hesitant communicators are unwilling to use English as they should. A similar negative assump-tion can be found in the term language anxiety, de-fined as “the fear or apprehension occurring when learners have to perform tasks in a target language in which they are not proficient” (Zhang & Zhong, 2012, p. 27). This term implies that there’s some-thing deficient in learners who feel anxiety, despite the fact that most or all language learners experi-ence nervousness or frustration at times.2. Resistance This paper seeks to reconsider negative attitudes towards language learning, and will argue that they should be seen as a natural part of the learning pro-cess. It will focus on the notion of resistance, a term usually applied to negative judgments about cultural difference among sojourners (Shaules, 2007, 2010, 2016). Shaules (2014) defines resistance as a “psy-chological threat response, in which we resist the integration of new patterns” into the cognitive ar-chitecture of our minds (p. 88). In this view, en-countering cultural difference can easily provoke defensive, judgmental, or denigrating reactions. This article will apply this conceptualization to language learning. This article will first introduce the concept of re-sistance as it is used in the context of intercultural adjustment. It will link this conceptualization to ex-isting scholarship in second language acquisition (SLA). The notion of resistance is argued to be con-sistent with a linguaculture view of language learn-ing―the idea that language use is closely tied to deeply-rooted cultural values and patterns of cogni-tion. In this view, language learning involves a pro-cess of deep psychological adjustment, as learners integrate foreign ways of thinking, acting and being. The notion of resistance will then be used to analyze positive and negative statements about language

元のページ 

10秒後に元のページに移動します

※このページを正しく表示するにはFlashPlayer10.2以上が必要です