順天堂グローバル教養論集_第二巻_2017年3月(ISSN2424-0001)
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68Juntendo Journal of Global Studies, Vol. 2, (2017)learning. There will be a particular focus on the pre-diction that negative feelings towards language learning engender negative value judgments on the part of learners. In effect, learners often blame themselves for perceived failures with English learning. The pervasive nature of resistance is ar-gued to reflect both the psychological difficulty, and transformative potential, inherent in language learn-ing.3. Resistance and cross-cultural adjustment As used in this work, the term resistance origi-nates in the deep culture model of intercultural ad-justment. Shaules (2007, 2010) has argued that neg-ative reactions to encounters with cultural difference are a natural part of the cross-cultural adjustment process. He describes resistance as a “cognitive self-protection reflex” and “a defensive reaction that seeks to maintain the primacy of one’s internal configuration in the face of an environment per-ceived as threatening,” (Shaules, 2014, p. 83). The notion of resistance has its roots in a developmental view of intercultural understanding (Bennett, 1986, 1993; Hammer, Bennett, & Wiseman, 2003). In this view, ethnocentrism, as a product of human evolu-tionary psychology, is the normal starting point for cross-cultural encounters. As such, although it’s not desirable, it is natural. Shaules (2016) has argued that dealing with the adaptive demands of foreign cultural environments broadly parallels the adjustment demands of learn-ing a foreign language. Drawing upon recent find-ings in cognitive and linguistic neuroscience, he ar-gues that language learning and intercultural adjustment can be conceived of as parallel processes that involve a reconfiguration of cognitive systems. According to this view, foreign language learning imposes adaptive demands on learners, necessitating profound and potentially disturbing changes to pat-terns of cognition. The need to change deeply rooted patterns of cognition triggers the defensive psycho-logical response of resistance. From this perspec-tive, negative attitudes towards English learning represent not a failure on the part of the students, but a natural psychological response to the patterns of foreignness being imposed on them. 4. Resistance and linguaculture The notion of resistance is consistent with a lin-guaculture (or languaculture) view of language learning―the idea that language use is intimately tied to deeply-rooted cultural values, sense of self, and patterns of cognition (Agar, 1994; Diaz, 2013; Risager, 2015). Learning a new language requires much more than mastering a new linguistic code, it involves negotiating a new sense of self in intercul-tural contexts, and gaining awareness of cultural el-ements of the self and others (Byram, 2008; Byram, Nichols, & Stevens, 2001; Kramsch, 1993, 2000, 2015). Building on this, Shaules (2016) has pro-posed a Developmental Model of Linguaculture Learning (DMLL), which places language learning and the process of gaining increased intercultural understanding into a single developmental frame-work. In this view, just as going to a foreign country puts adaptive pressure on a sojourner―possibly provoking culture shock or intercultural insights―a foreign language also challenges learners with for-eign ways of thinking, acting and being. While the term resistance has previously been ap-plied to the challenges of intercultural adjustment, this work seeks to expand that conceptualization to language learning contexts as well. This work pro-poses that negative attitudes towards language learning are fundamentally similar to the psycholog-ical resistance provoked by intercultural experi-ences. They both involve a threat response that can be triggered by an encounter with foreign patterns in one’s environment. This is true even when there is no clearly defined cultural community for the L2,

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