順天堂グローバル教養論集_第二巻_2017年3月(ISSN2424-0001)
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70Juntendo Journal of Global Studies, Vol. 2, (2017)Common synonyms for foreign include negative-sounding words such as strange, weird, alien, and bizarre. Above all, foreignness implies something not integrated into normal functioning. Language learning involves dealing with foreignness, as it re-quires a long-term willingness to experiment with the foreign and unfamiliar―to coax strange sounds from our mouths, search for words, piece together sentences, make countless mistakes, bumble through even simple interactions, and adapt to different modes of thought and communication. Adjusting to and internalizing foreign linguistic and cultural patterns requires a reorganizing of our cognitive processes―a reprogramming of our un-conscious linguistic and social autopilot. This pro-cess is experienced at deep levels of the self. Re-search into embodied cognition (Damasio, 1994, 1999; Shapiro, 2014) and cultural neurolinguistics (Chen, Xue, Mei, Chen, & Dong, 2009) provides evidence that language use involves much more than mental manipulation of conceptual symbols (Bergen, 2012) and that cultural patterns are deeply rooted in our unconscious mind (Markus & Kita-yama, 1991; Shaules, 2007, 2014). When this repro-gramming is imposed on us, it can provoke a defen-sive response by the pattern recognition and threat- response functions of the unconscious mind (Klein, 1998; Lund, 2001). Resistance to foreignness is largely unconscious or intuitive. It is generated by the pattern recogni-tion and information processing systems that func-tion out of awareness (Kahneman, 2011; Kihlstrom, 1987; Wilson, 2002). Research in cognitive neuro-science provides strong evidence that the uncon-scious mind does not consist primarily of emotions, habits and primitive urges (Hassin, Uleman, & Bargh, 2007; Mlodinow, 2012). It serves as an un-conscious pattern-based autopilot that guides our actions in everyday life. It plays an important role in motivation, decision-making, and evaluating threats (Kahneman, 2011; Wilson, 2002). It is also critical to social cognition, our intuitive ability to under-stand people and respond appropriately to social cues (Greenwald & Banaji, 1995; Moskowitz, 2005). Because we are largely unaware of these pro-cesses, however, learners may themselves not be conscious of resistance. Resistance can be both powerful, yet subtle enough to escape conscious de-tection. Importantly, however, foreignness is not counter to learning and development―it is an integral part of it. After all, learning of all kinds involves inte-grating new elements into the self. Our unconscious cognitive processes are also stimulated by novelty, and may find foreign patterns appealing. Foreign experiences can promote growth and transforma-tion. Many motivated learners talk about their inter-est in the L2 being sparked by having a foreign neighbor, traveling abroad, liking foreign music or movies, reading books or manga from another coun-try. The learners we tend to describe as motivated are those for whom the foreignness of the new lan-guage generates curiosity and interest, rather than resistance. Our reaction to foreignness, then, is a central fea-ture of what provokes engagement or resistance to language learning. When we want to protect our-selves from the foreign demands of a new language, we may feel unmotivated, detached, resentful and so on. When we experience foreignness in a positive way, we are open to change and may seek it out. Of course, we don’t respond to foreignness in a simple either/or fashion. We may have mixed feelings, as when we enjoy trying out a language when we travel, but hate studying grammar in school. This motivational dynamic is illustrated in Figure 1. An encounter with foreignness imposes adaptive demands on learners, which they respond to with more or less acceptance of change, which generates engagement and/or resistance. In this way, negative

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