順天堂グローバル教養論集_第二巻_2017年3月(ISSN2424-0001)
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73Linguaculture Resistancefaye & Tsuda, 2002). An intercultural adjustment perspective suggests that resistance is often accompanied by critical value judgments. In other words, it’s not simply that we find things not to our taste, we tend to deni-grate or find fault. Student comments reflected this. Although there were negative statements that seemed simply factual, such as It’s hard to memo-rize a lot of words, most negative statements in-volved some form of denigration, as with the com-ment I hate English grammar, I hate English, or I don’t want to speak English. Such statements imply psychological resistance because learners are going beyond a neutral description and expressing active disdain. The disdain of resistance was not, however, only directed at English. There were many self-critical statements, such as I’m not good enough or I’m not good at grammar, or I can’t memorize the words. These made up 24 out of 149 negative comments. This implies that for large numbers of learners, Eng-lish learning provokes feelings of inadequacy and personal failure. It doesn’t seem to occur to stu-dents, however, that there may be other places to place blame. There were no negative comments, for example, directed at study materials, the educational system, or an overemphasis on testing. Denigration was aimed at English, or the learners themselves. The intercultural adjustment perspective also sug-gests that resistance towards English may be associ-ated with a psychological distancing or denigration towards foreigners more generally. This was found in statements such as I don’t want to work with peo-ple from foreign countries, or I’m not interested in foreign countries. In fact, 34 statements (more than 13% of the total) were variations of the idea that English is distant, alien and unnecessary. This in-cluded declarations such as I won’t go abroad in my whole life or There’s no need to use English in Ja-pan, or most memorably I really hate English, I won’t go abroad, I won’t live abroad. My father is a farmer, so I don’t need to study English any more. This paints a picture of English being experienced as an unreasonable imposition and a threat to one’s personal or cultural identity. There was another group of statements that fit well with the resistance paradigm―those that indi-cated contradictory feelings towards learning, re-ferred to in the deep culture model as mixed states or forced adaptation (Shaules, 2007). On the one hand, learners want to gain the benefits from lan-guage learning, yet may find the process unduly dif-ficult or threatening. Eight responses fit the category of mixed reaction generally, including statements such as I like English but I don’t like to study and I like my teacher but I don’t like grammar class. Other statements implied forced adaptation, when learners force themselves to attempt to learn Eng-lish, in spite of psychological resistance. Such state-ments included I know I have to study to pass en-trance exams, but . . . . Such learners risk creating conflict within themselves, as they are caught be-tween powerful external adaptive demands and powerful inner resistance to those demands. Key results are summarized as follows:• Percentage of students estimated to have nega-tive attitudes towards English: 34• Total comments collected: 255• Positive comments: 73 (e.g. I want to use Eng-lish when I travel overseas.; I like English.)• Negative comments: 149 (e.g. I don’t like Eng-lish.; Grammar is boring.; I won’t use English in my life.) • Neutral or mixed comments (33): (e.g. English is important to get a job in the future.; I like Eng-lish but I don’t like to study.)• Self critical comments: 24 (e.g. I’m not good enough.; I’m not good at grammar.; I can’t memorize the words.)• Psychological distancing comments: 34 (e.g. I

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