順天堂グローバル教養論集_第二巻_2017年3月(ISSN2424-0001)
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74Juntendo Journal of Global Studies, Vol. 2, (2017)won’t go abroad in my whole life.; There’s no need to use English in Japan.; I really hate Eng-lish. I won’t go abroad. I won’t live abroad. My father is a farmer, so I don’t need to study Eng-lish any more.)11. Discussion Overall, results supported the idea that resistance describes well the experience of language learners struggling with English. Deep culture theory pre-dicts that resistance is a form of active, psychologi-cal self-protection―an unconscious threat response that can engender long-term negative consequences. In this view, demotivation represents more than a failure to acquire important knowledge and skills. It is a stress response that can create negative associa-tions and judgments that may hinder language and culture learning in the future. In extreme cases it may be experienced as traumatic. There are pedagogical implications to accepting the notion that negative learner attitudes represent psychological resistance. One relates to the way that demotivated students are perceived by teachers. Deep culture theory argues that resistance is normal―it does not necessarily signify a lack of desire to learn, or laziness or a bad attitude. Language learn-ing is difficult at least partly because it involves a deep process of psychological adjustment. Another implication is that foreign language classrooms should be thought of as an intercultural learning zone, even when the instructor is not from a foreign country. The notion of resistance may also have implica-tions for research into learner motivation. A major theoretical assumption of the linguaculture learning perspective is that language learning itself repre-sents an imposition on the learner. Particularly in in-stitutional learning settings, learners are given little choice about when or how they are expected to learn English. Theories of motivation should, then, take this lack of autonomy into consideration. There are, of course, many unanswered questions. For example, it is obvious that having negative learning experiences is not limited to foreign lan-guage study. Learners may strongly dislike science, history, or physical education classes. Are negative attitudes towards these other subjects different from those towards English? Also, this study looked only at negative reactions to the adaptive challenges of language learning. Deep culture theory suggests that foreignness is not always perceived as negative. Indeed, foreign expe-riences can and do stimulate learning. The capacity of the foreignness of language learning to promote engagement with learning also needs to be explored. Ultimately, no discussion of resistance is complete without a complementary discussion of engagement, and an examination of the interplay between the two. 12. Further research There were clear limitations to this study. As mentioned earlier, this study did not address the larger question of whether Japanese students gener-ally have high or low levels of resistance. Students were not asked directly about their attitudes, the participants were limited to one region of Japan, and the sample was not representative of English learn-ers more generally. In addition, the method used did not allow for exploring answers more fully. There are many possible ways to interpret the statements in this study. Follow-up research could include qualitative interviews in which learners are asked to elaborate on their negative feelings about English. In particular, it would be useful to explore who or what they feel is to blame for their unpleasant learn-ing experiences. Another area not explored in this paper is the no-tion of surface resistance and deep resistance, the idea that resistance is largely unconscious. Learners

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