順天堂グローバル教養論集_第二巻_2017年3月(ISSN2424-0001)
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75Linguaculture Resistancemay find themselves losing motivation without rec-ognizing underlying feelings of resistance. Or, they may become self-critical, without being consciously aware of it. Learning awareness activities could be researched as a way of helping learners identify and overcome feelings of resistance. Ultimately, for the notion of resistance in foreign language learning to be of value to educators, it must shed new light on learner attitudes and motiva-tion. This will require a more elaborated view of the nature of resistance, with more detailed and in-depth research into these questions. To contact the author: shaules@juntendo.ac.jp Footnotes: 1) (Page 6 R, 9 lines from bottom) There was no involvement by Juntendo Univer-sity teachers or students. The sample cannot be said to be representative of Japanese teachers generally. Nor can it be assumed that the student sample was representative of Japan, since teach-ers were presumably concentrated in the Kanto area. Another limitation of this method was that learner attitudes were reported on by teachers, without surveying students directly. An advantage to this method, however, is that teachers may have a broad or general sense of learner attitudes, based on experience with many students. ReferencesAgar, M. (1994). Language shock: Understanding the culture of conversation. New York: Peren-nial.Agawa, T., Abe, E., Ishizuka, M., Ueda, M., Okuda, S., Carreira-Matsuzaki, J., . . . Shimizu, S. (2011). Preliminary study of demotivating factors in Japanese university English learning. The Lan-guage Teacher, 35(1), 11–16. Amodio, D. M. (2009). The neuroscience of stereo-typing and prejudice. Paper presented at the In-clusive Leadership, Stereotyping and the Brain Conference, Columbia University, New York, NY www4.gsb.columbia.edu/rt/null?&exclusive=filemgr.download&file_id=732114&rtcontentdisposition=filename%3DDavid_Amodio_ColumbiaSept09Amodio, D. M., & Mendoza, S. A. (2010). Implicit intergroup bias: Cognitive, affective, and moti-vational underpinnings. In B. Gawronski & B. Payne (Eds.), Handbook of implicit social cog-nition: Measurement, theory, and applications (pp. 353–374). New York: Guilford Press.Baumeister, R. F., Bratslavasky, E., Muraven, M., & Tice, D. M. (1998). Ego depletion: Is the active self a limited resource? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(5), 1252–1265. Benesse. (2006). Report of the first basic survey of elementary school English (parents’ survey). Retrieved from http://berd.benesse.jp/berd/center/open/report/syo_eigo/hogosya/indexBenesse. (2007). English education in East Asia―GTEC survey. Retrieved from http://berd.benesse.jp/berd/center/open/report/eastasia_gtec/soku/GTEC_sok4Bennett, M. J. (1986). A developmental approach to training for intercultural sensitivity. Interna-tional Journal of Intercultural Relations, 10(2), 179–200. Bennett, M. J. (1993). Towards ethnorelativism: A developmental model of intercultural sensitiv-ity. In M. R. Paige (Ed.), Education for the in-tercultural experience (pp. 21–71). Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.Bergen, B. K. (2012). Louder than words: The new science of how the mind makes meaning. New York: Basic Books.Burgess, C. (2013, May 21). Ambivalent Japan turns on its “insular” youth. The Japan Times. Re-trieved from http://www.japantimes.co.jp/

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